She sank quickly, taking with her a large part of the crew, the others having to survive through the burning oil, and later isolation and fatigue, shark attacks for several days before being collected. Fast, powerful, and short-lived, the Alaska -class large cruisers of the US Navy in World War II were both state of the art and obsolete at the same time. Many served as fire support and command ships in Vietnam, and five of them were completely rebuilt in missile cruisers including two, the USS Chicago and the USS Albany was still in service in 1980. This was largely compensated during the war, with many quadruple Bofors 40 mm and fifty or so single oerlikon guns. The US had 37 cruisers (18 heavy and 19 light) at the start of the war to serve all ocean fronts. Compartimentation was stronger, compensating the lack of armor by dissipating the rounds energy. These were the USN “tin-clad cruisers”. In fact the sub-class Oregon City had comparatively far less of the smaller 20 mm Oerlikon guns: Twenty. They became the stable of heavy short range AA artillery on all USN Cruisers. Their conception goes back to the beginning of the war, when all the treaties of limitation became obsolete. In 1944, the Milwaukee was transferred to the USSR as a lease-loan becoming the Murmansk, to provide escorts from that port. USS Indianapolis en 1945, at the time she delivered the atomic bomb, sunk soon after on her way back. From 1929 a plan called for 20 new cruisers, and very quickly the admiralty was interested in well-balanced European designs. Many cancellations followed however towards the end of the war and in total only twenty-one of these cruisers were completed during wartime. Characteristics (in 1941): Displacement: 9,767 t. standard -12 207 t. Full Load Dimensions: 185.42 m long, 18.82 m wide, 6.93 m draft Machines: 4 propellers, 4 Parsons turbines, 8 B & W boilers, 100,000 hp. Their artillery was original, with an arrangement of two double turrets and pieces in barbettes, an unlikely mix that illustrated their transitional nature. With the Baltimore, we went to 12 of 127 mm, 48 of 40 mm, 24 of 20 mm in 1942, and much more in 1945. -The Mark 12 eliminated hoops to reduce weight to 17 tons. France fell, and in the meantime from 1935 the USN purchased two Oerlikon 20 mm Model 1934 guns for evaluation, but rejected it for having a low muzzle velocity and rate of fire. The Baltimore class were indeed designed and laid down from mid-1941, six years after the USS Wichita, inaugurating a new hull in complete departure from the last “classic” washington cruisers, the New Orleans. The case of France was not much different though. The program called for a fast scout cruiser or flotilla leader able to perform the same missions, on the same displacement, taking advantage of the tonnage limitations, but armed with a completely new battery. The term “CA” was a fairly ancient one, dating back to the first USN protected and armoured cruisers, before WW1. The interwar cruisers relied on single or dual mounted 12.7 mm or 0.5 in cal. Fast and heavily armed, the Baltimore class was an evolution of the heavy cruiser designs from before World War II, but without the limitations imposed by the Washington Naval Treaty. Entries are listed below in alphanumeric order (1-to-Z). Muzzle velocity was 2,500 feet per second (760 m/s) and maximum range was 30,050 yards (27,480 m). In the end Baltimore class units were preferred and she joined the demolition yard in 1959. Crew: 723. To survive in front of heavier ships, the Atlanta class had to rely on their speed. Each one of the these displaced more than the Washington and London treaty allowed, automatically lifted in wartime: 11,744 long tons standard and 14,131 long tons (14,358 t). Due to the increase of AAA during the war many modifications were imposed, including the addition of ballasts, removal of TTs, new lightened superstructures, more concentrated, seen on the last launched in 1944-46, USS Juneau (2), Spokane and Fresno. While faring well against Japanese cruisers in gunnery duels, US cruisers had experienced heavy losses from Japanese des… The Cleveland-class cruisers formed series of ships which became the most prolific ever for cruisers. Heavy cruisers continued in use until after World War II. The Des Moines-Class Heavy Cruiser, USS NEWPORT NEWS (CA-148) 8 in heavy cruiser USS Pensacola in 1943: lead ship of the first US Navy class built to 10000 ton Washington Treaty limits. USS Indianapolis (CA35), colorized by Irootoko Jr. / No heavy cruiser was damaged and all were able to carry the fight to the / Japanese (and Germans) once war plans were revised. No less than fifty two keels laid down, this was quite an achievement. However, the success of the 6in/47 design inspired the Bureau of Ordnance to develop an automatic 8in/55, which was suitable for heavy cruisers not much larger than the Worcesters; the General Board at one point recommended that all seven new light cruisers contemplated (CL143-149) be re-ordered as large heavy cruisers. On the other hand, anti-aircraft artillery was entrusted to eight 5-in (127 mm), way too slow to deal with modern strafing aviation, alongside eight 2.5 in way too short in range. USS Boston and Canberra were converted at New York SB, both were recommissioned in November 1955 and June 1956. With the Alaska, the Admiralty intended to pass directly to the caliber 305 mm, that in force on the ships of line since 1890 and until 1916. 47 were forged, but the only ships they equipped eventually were the ten Omaha class cruisers. Displacement: 7050 t, 8950 T FL Dimensions: 172 x 16.2 x 7.25 m Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 Westinghouse turbines, 2 BW boilers, 70,000 hp. The Alaska class were the great white elephants of the US Navy. The last heavy cruiser, Wichita, suffered from stability problems, and it was intended that any new design would address this defect. Each time they were on the broadside, with the exception of some that were elevated to the level of the main deck. Soon the USN focused like many other navies on 8-in cruisers and will only return to “light” cruisers with the 6-in gun armed Brooklyn class nearly ten years after, hardly comparable to the Omaha. The heavy cruiser was defined in the London Naval Treaty of 1930 as a cruiser with a main gun calibre not exceeding 8 inches. The camouflage of the time was quite complex but well adapted to the landscape of South Pacific islands. Originally part of the German Navy, the Prinz Eugen was given to the U.S. after World War II as a victory prize.. 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