Awards. Otto Kretschmer (1912–1998) was the most successful of the World War II Aces of the Deep. 1994, Japan Center for Asian Historical Records, reference code C13072147800 (jp), Ministry of Demobilization appointment dated 11 June 1946, Publication No. The loss of the Corvina was not announced until March 14, 1944; she was the only American submarine to be sunk by a Japanese submarine in the entire war.[10]. She arrived off the coast of Guam at 03:00 on 11 January 1945 and Hashimoto ordered four kaitens launched. [6] A second supply mission the following month failed. The career of the USS Wahoo in sinking Japanese ships in the farthest reaches of the Empire is legendary in submarine circles. She then moved to Hirao where she loaded six kaitens. The other destroyers joined in, carrying out a series of depth-charge attacks that continued for several hours. Richard O’Kane was born in 1911 Dover, New Hampshire. She limped to Kure on 29 April 1945, the only Japanese submarine to withdraw from the operation. Hashimoto reported a tanker assumed sunk. It had presumably been attacked by an American submarine but had escaped damage, most likely due to a defective torpedo. Directed by Paul Wendkos. Morton's bravery immediately rubbed off on O'Kane and the rest of the crew and, for three patrols, Wahoo sent numerous Japanese ships to the bottom. [8][9] During that time, his brother was killed in action fighting on the Chinese mainland. Several American submarines in the Truk area were informed that a Japanese submarine was in the vicinity. Commanded by Dudley “Mush” Morton, Wahoo was one of the most successful American submarines warfare Commander of World War II. [13] I-176 was presumed lost on June 11, 1944, and was removed from the Japanese Navy List on July 10. He lost his entire family in the Little Boy atomic bombing of Hiroshima days after the sinking of Indianapolis.[1]. He sank an oil tanker off the Canadian coast, shelled Australian shore facilities and in total sank about 40-45,000 tons of shipping in 2 patrols around Australia. He attended Kyoto Third High School, a prestigious school, where he performed well. Japanese industry depended for survival on access to … The crew were all agog, awaiting the order to fire the torpedoes. USS Grayback, one of the most successful submarines of the war, was a Tambor-class submarine launched on January 31, 1941 and was under the command of Lieutenant Commander John Anderson Moore. Every minute seemed an age. O'Kane is considered the most successful submarine officer in World War II and earned the Medal of Honor, three Navy Crosses, three Silver Stars … [10] Selected for submarine school the following year, Hashimoto was assigned to the Yokosuka Naval District on 20 May 1939 and enrolled in a six-month torpedo course on 1 June, subsequently entering the naval submarine school as a Class B student on 1 December. Hashimoto ordered the submarine to make for an area where he believed shipping lanes between Guam, Leyte, Peleliu and Okinawa intersected. [26] The strike had been unsuccessful. [26] She was ordered out again on 2 April sailing to support Japanese forces at the Battle of Okinawa. Perhaps it is time your peoples forgave Captain McVay for the humiliation of his unjust conviction.[57]. The following morning, the destroyers found evidence of the destruction of I-176 – fragments of sandalwood and cork and paper marked with Japanese words. [23][24] He completed training on the submarine in December 1944. Hashimoto commanded coastal patrol and training submarines off Japan for much of the war, and in 1944 took command of I-58, a submarine which was equipped to carry kaiten manned torpedoes. [49][50] Still, his testimony is considered integral in McVay's eventual conviction that he had been negligent. In the Straits of Formosa in October, on that fifth patrol, the Tang wreaked havoc on the Japanese. Once there, I-58 was ordered to launch all of its kaitens without their pilots and immediately return home. ... At last in a loud voice, I gave the order 'Stand by—fire!' [55], Afterward, he became a Shinto priest at a shrine in Kyoto. Her wartime total was 60,038 tons. Japanese submarines in the area, including the I-176, were ordered to travel north to carry out an attack but the I-176 was the only Japanese vessel to successfully engage one of the US vessels. Leaving home for the first time, Hashimoto then attended the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy at Etajima for four years, studying Japanese history, engineering, and naval tactics, as well as judo and other military athletics. Four months after this picture was taken she was lost with all hands while attempting to exit the Sea of Japan after sinking four ships for a total of 13,000 tons. [33] At 23:35 that evening, Hashimoto spotted the heavy cruiser Indianapolis at 10,000 metres (33,000 ft) cruising for his position at medium speed. Recognizing his calling to serve at sea, he attended the US Naval Academy in Annapolis and graduated in 1934. Wahoo’s executive officer on five war patrols was Lieutenant Richard O’Kane, who would go on to be the most successful submarine skipper of the war. Built for the Royal Navy as the “T” Class HMS Talent, it was transferred to the RNN in 1943, and began operations in Australian waters from September 1944. Bringing the boat on to a course parallel with the enemy, we waited anxiously. This Tiny U.S. Navy Warship Sank the Most Submarines in History. Born in Kyoto and educated at the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy, Hashimoto volunteered for service in submarines and was aboard submarine I-24 during the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. I-176 was sunk in May 1944 in the western Pacific by the American destroyers Franks, Haggard and Johnston. [7] Her commander, Yahachi Tanabe, was wounded by machine-gun fire from the bombers and had to relinquish command a few days later. Highly publicized at the time, the improvised appendectomy carried out by one pharmacist's mate while his boat was running submerged is typical of the leadership abilities and training of wartime U.S. Navy submarine force personnel—even in non-combat situations. Mochitsura Hashimoto (橋本以行, Hashimoto Mochitsura, 1909 – 25 October 2000) was a Japanese officer and a submarine commander in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. The tonnage figures (and sometimes the number of ships sunk) is still being debated among historians. Mochitsura Hashimoto was born in 1909 in Kyoto, Japan[2] the eighth of nine children and fifth son of a kannushi (Shinto priest). After searching unsuccessfully for flotsam or any sign of the ship,[36][37] he ordered the I-58 to retire at 02:30. As commander of U-35, U-23and U-99he sank 47 merchant ships totalling 272,043 tons in a remarkably short period of time, being captured in March 1941 and spending the rest of the war in the Bowmanville POW camp, Canada. Then another column of water arose from alongside the Number 2 turret and seemed to envelop the whole ship—"A hit, a hit!" After returning to Sydney, Australia, to carry out repairs, Chester had to withdraw to Norfolk, Virginia, for repairs which kept her out of the war until September 1943. [51] Charles Butler McVay III was exonerated in 2001. He was 93. He was captain of the submarine I-58, which sank the American heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis in 1945 after its delivery of parts and enriched uranium for the first atomic weapon used in wartime, Little Boy, prior to the attack on Hiroshima. 342, Japan Center for Asian Historical Records, reference code C13072075900 (jp), Naval appointment dated 1 December 1939, Publication (limited access) No. Regarding McVay's conviction, Hashimoto wrote: Our peoples have forgiven each other for that terrible war and its consequences. 1908, Japan Center for Asian Historical Records, reference code C13072108400 (jp), Naval appointment dated 29 November 1945, Publication No. After a number of unsuccessful operations, under the command of Hashimoto I-58 sank Indianapolis on 30 July with two Type 95 torpedoes while on a midnight patrol. I-176 was ordered in 1939 but construction did not begin until 1941 at the Kure Naval Arsenal in Hiroshima prefecture. [58][59][60], In December 1990, Hashimoto met with some of the survivors of the Indianapolis at Pearl Harbor, where he stated through a translator: "I came here to pray with you for your shipmates whose deaths I caused," to which survivor Giles McCoy simply responded: "I forgive you."[57]. USS Grayback, one of the most successful submarines of the war, was a Tambor-class submarine launched on January 31, 1941. Hashimoto testified in the court on 13 December in a crowded courtroom. [45] Among the public responses, socialite Evalyn Walsh McLean sent an angry telegram to Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal to complain, and U.S. Representative Robert L. Doughton publicly stated, "It is the most contemptible thing I ever heard of to summon a Jap officer to testify against one of our own officers. He initially served aboard the heavy cruiser Chester and the destroyer Pruitt. I-21 (伊号第二一潜水艦, I-gō Dai Nijū-ichi sensui-kan) was a Japanese Type B1 submarine which saw service during World War II in the Imperial Japanese Navy.She displaced 1,950 tons and had a speed of 24 knots (44 km/h). Six torpedoes were speeding, fanwise, toward the enemy ship. After an hour at a deep dive to reload, she surfaced and did not spot Indianapolis. . The ship traversed Shimonoseki Strait into the Inland Sea and to Kure for supplies. Following his appearance at the trial, Hashimoto remained in U.S. custody under guard until early 1946, when he was returned to Japan aboard USS Effingham. was a Japanese Type B1 submarine which saw service during World War II in the Imperial Japanese Navy. In 1999, he assisted the surviving crew of the Indianapolis in attempting to exonerate McVay of blame for the ship's sinking, writing a letter to the Senate Armed Services Committee in which he stated, just as he had more than five decades earlier, that even if the Indianapolis had been zigzagging, there would have been no difference: "I would have been able to launch a successful torpedo attack against his ship whether it had been zigzagging or not." [16][17] Throughout the year, the submarine conducted training maneuvers with a group of midget submarines. 408, Japan Center for Asian Historical Records, reference code C13072077100 (jp), Naval appointment dated 20 March 1940, Publication (limited access) No. [48][Note 1] At the behest of Cady, Hashimoto took both a Japanese civil oath and a U.S. Navy oath and so he could be charged for perjury in both nations if he lied. On 15 November, as a sub-lieutenant, Hashimoto was assigned to the crew of the gunboat Hozu, and was promoted to lieutenant on 1 December. The submarines were so successful that by early 1944, they struggled to … [18] Hashimoto witnessed the final ritual of Kazuo Sakamaki and Kyoji Inagaki, who would man the midget submarine, which cast off at 05:30. [9] The I-176's log recorded that it had fired three torpedoes, claiming two hits which destroyed the target. A message from I-176 was intercepted which reported that the vessel had "Received direct torpedo hit en route to Truk, no damage". On completion in 1942 the vessel was renamed from I-76 to I-176[1] and was sent initially to Truk in September 1942. [25], On 29 December, she left on her first war patrol, steaming for the Mariana Islands. Hashimoto was assured he would be treated as a naval officer instead of a prisoner of war or war criminal, but he remained under guard during his time in the United States and was not allowed to leave his hotel, as his appearance had been front-page news that day in the New York Times and in other newspapers. [31][32] She spotted a tanker escorted by a destroyer and Hashimoto ordered her to launch two kaitens at 14:31 and 14:43. The list of most successful U-boat commanders contains the top-scoring German U-boat commanders in the two World Wars based on their total tonnage sunk.. She was under the command of Lieutenant Commander … At the behest of his father, he applied for the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy. I-24 remained at a rendezvous point to wait for the midget sub, which never came. patrol, was sunk by friendly fire on the the 3rd. In 1942 submarine commander Jeff Conway secretly photographs Japanese aircraft carriers in the Coral Sea but his submarine is damaged and he's forced to surrender. [40] She picked up reports of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima in intercepted radio transmissions on 7 August but Hashimoto continued to hunt for Allied ships south of Bungo Strait. During his career, this Italian submarine ace sent more enemy shipping to the bottom than anyone from the Soviet, Japanese, British or American navies. [34] Believing the ship to be an "Idaho-class" battleship, he ordered I-58 to dive and once Indianapolis closed to 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) he ordered six regular torpedoes fired at 00:02 on 30 July. Congress warmed to the idea of a weapon that might render expensive battleships obsolete, and on 30 June 1914 authorized construction of eight submarines, of which at least one was to … This would be his new home until 1942 when the Argonaut, a sub commissioned in 1928, was put in to be ov… [56] He was later interviewed by author Dan Kurzman for his 1990 book Fatal Voyage, in which Kurzman stated, "Commander Hashimoto was amazed by the Americans. Before commanding Tang, O'Kane served in the highly successful USS Wahoo as executive officer and approach officer under noted Commander Dudley "Mush" Morton. He was promoted to lieutenant commander on 1 November. 543, Japan Center for Asian Historical Records, reference code C13072079100 (jp), Naval appointment dated 15 July 1941, Publication (limited access) No. Hashimoto's submarine then returned to Japan, one of the few Japanese submarines to survive the war. However, apart from the German U-Boat commanders, the most successful submarine commander of World War II was an Italian officer, Lieutenant Commander Gianfranco Gazzana Priaroggia. [52], After his return to Japan, Hashimoto worked as a demobilization officer with the naval section of the Ministry of Demobilization, responsible for demobilizing veterans and dismantling what remained of the Japanese Navy. One of Hashimoto's older brothers subsequently attended the Imperial Japanese Army Academy and was commissioned into the Imperial Japanese Army. On October 13, an American carrier group was sighted off the Solomon Islands. Though Hashimoto was himself known to be innocent of any war crimes and was generally treated well by his guards, he spoke little English and was subject to derision in the press. However, his future would be with those who dwell beneath the surface and after submarine instruction in 1938, he was assigned the USS Argonaut. Hashimoto oversaw much of the construction of I-58. Christened three months after Pearl Harbor, Wahoo was commanded by the astonishing Dudley W. "Mush" Morton, whose originality and daring new techniques led to results unprecedented in naval history; among them, successful "down the throat" barrage against an … In fact, O’Kane was the supreme submarine ace of the war and won the Medal of Honor. [11][12][13] Upon completion of this training, he was assigned to the submarine I-123 on 20 March 1940 as torpedo officer, transferring to the I-155 on 15 October in the same role. She subsequently returned to Truk in April 1944 and was despatched to Buka Island at the far western end of the Solomon Islands archipelago, where she was to undertake another supply run. The three submarines under Captain "Swede" Momsen in Cero, cruised the China Sea and returned to base with claims of 38,000 tons sunk and 3300 damaged. I-58 surfaced in Bungo Strait on 15 August, where Hashimoto learned of the Gyokuon-hōsō signaling the Japanese surrender and end of the war. 453, Japan Center for Asian Historical Records, reference code C13072077800 (jp), Naval appointment dated 15 October 1940, Publication (limited access) No. I shouted as each torpedo struck home, and the crew danced for joy.[39]. In his ten combat patrols, five in Wahoo and five commanding Tang, O'Kane participated … At the time, she was one of only four large submarines left in the Japanese Navy, and her mission was to harass Allied lines of communications.[28][29][30]. He transmitted a short wave radio message to the 6th Fleet headquarters in Kure at about 03:00 noting the destruction of the ship. She remained in port because of continued mining conducted by U.S. Army Air Forces, and departed on 16 July on another war patrol. He was captain of the submarine I-58, which sank the American heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis in 1945 after its delivery of parts and enriched uranium for the first atomic weapon used in wartime, Little Boy, prior to the attack on Hiroshima. Commanded by Dudley “Mush” Morton, Wahoo was one of the most successful American submarines of World War II. She had two turrets aft and a large tower mast. Mochitsura Hashimoto (橋本以行, Hashimoto Mochitsura, 1909 – 25 October 2000) was a Japanese officer and a submarine commander in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. [11] On the morning of May 16, the destroyers began to comb the waters off Buka. He told them the visibility was good on the night of the attack and he had been able to easily spot the Indianapolis. [3] In his youth he was described as self-possessed and respectful. [20] In 1943, he was given command of submarine I-158 for coastal defense, and later in the year was given command of submarine Ro-44 for the same duties. 736, Japan Center for Asian Historical Records, reference code C13072082900 (jp), Naval appointment dated 2 February 1942, Publication (limited access) No. Hashimoto ordered I-58 northward looking for additional ships to attack. All was dead quiet ... the favorable moment for firing was approaching. She attacked On 9 August she launched two kaitens against a convoy, and Hashimoto claimed a destroyer probably sunk. Passing east of Okinawa and spotting no ships, she cruised south arriving at the Guam-Leyte shipping lane on 27 July. [4] He graduated and commissioned in 1931.[5]. [52], With the Nuremberg Trials underway and Japanese war crimes during the war coming to light, the announcement of Hashimoto's appearance in testimony against an American officer caused considerable controversy in the American news media. [8], After several months of repairs in Japan, I-176 returned to Lae, Sio and Finschhafen in New Guinea to carry out a number of successful supply runs between July and October 1943. USS Barb (SS-220), a Gato-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the Barbus, a genus of ray-finned fish.She compiled one of the most outstanding records of any U.S. submarine in World War II.During her seven war patrols, Barb is officially credited with sinking 17 enemy vessels totaling 96,628 tons, including the Japanese aircraft carrier Un'yō. On 12 August he launched his remaining kaitens and claimed a merchant ship probably sunk. She displaced 1,950 tons and had a speed of 24 knots (44km/h). On 4 February 1945, Vice Admiral Shigeyoshi Miwa, Commander of Japanese Sixth Fleet (submarines), ... [SS-269] one of the most successful boats of the war, on 19 February 1944. [33][35] Spotting three explosions strike the Indianapolis, Hashimoto ordered the submarine on a deep dive fearing detection. On October 13, an American carrier group was sighted off the Solomon Islands. In 1937, Hashimoto married Nobuko Miki, the daughter of a successful Osaka businessman. In March 1943 I-176 narrowly avoided destruction when she was attacked at Lae, Papua New Guinea by US B-25 Mitchell bombers while unloading supplies. 91. "[57] Hashimoto later authored a book Sunk: The Story of the Japanese Submarine Fleet, 1941–1945 in which he detailed Japanese submarine operations in the war, including an account of the sinking of Indianapolis. [38] He later wrote of the incident: We had the moon behind us and the enemy ship was now clearly visible. HIJMS Submarine I-176: Tabular Record of Movement, Shipwrecks and maritime incidents in May 1944, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Japanese_submarine_I-176&oldid=979203610, Japanese submarines lost during World War II, World War II shipwrecks in the Pacific Ocean, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 2 × Kampon Mk.1B Model 8 diesels, 2 shafts; 8,000 bhp, 50 nmi (93 km; 58 mi) at 5 knots (9.3 km/h; 5.8 mph) submerged, This page was last edited on 19 September 2020, at 11:56. This is often due to convoy battles at night when an attacking "wolfpack" fired torpedoes into the convoy and two (sometimes … Rear Adm. Eugene B. Fluckey, one of America’s most daring submarine commanders of World War II and a recipient of the Medal of Honor, died Thursday in Annapolis, Md. A KD7 sub-class boat, I-176 was built for the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) in the early 1940s. [6] On 18 November, I-24 and her group sailed from Kure with a midget submarine attached to her afterdeck. 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