First, it is well known that people can regulate their emotions [18–21], which entails generating new emotions or changing the intensity of current emotions using behavioral or cognitive strategies [20]. Love is probably the best Two participants reported that they could not decrease love feelings. In addition, the pictures ensure high ecological validity, as the partner is typically encountered in a wide variety of contexts and with varying facial expressions. In contrast, reappraisal was used more to decrease love feelings than to feel better. Because self-reports are the only way to assess subjective feelings [39], they are often used in behavioral and neuroimaging studies on emotion regulation as a way to assess regulation success (e.g., [49, 57, 73, 74]). you are likely to experience in your life. really needing? Abstract Failure in love is part of life that many people may experience it. will be depressed, not only because you will not be connected enough but Thus, partner pictures elicited positive and arousing feelings in the relationship group but not in break-up group, which confirms that the two groups differed in anticipated ways. First, participants completed some questions about their love feelings and their romantic relationship [44]. Importantly, people who idealize their partner and whose partners idealize them have happier relationships [34]. Researchers have proposed several taxonomies of love, with various numbers of love types or components [9–13]. “Love” is a not word you often hear uttered in office hallways or conference rooms. Research has shown that expression suppression does not actually alter the intensity of feelings and that it has negative effects on cognitive and social functioning [21], so it might not be an adaptive strategy for regulating love feelings. Alternatively or additionally, recent work has shown that reappraising anxiety as excitement (i.e., changing the valence from negative to positive) improved performance in anxiety-provoking tasks compared to trying to calm down (i.e., reducing arousal) [77], so it may be more beneficial to change valence rather than arousal when regulating love feelings. Although the current study did not study the long-term effects of love down-regulation using reappraisal, it has recently been shown that thinking negative thoughts about the relationship has adaptive features when recovering from a romantic break-up [75]. However, what is meant by ‘love’ differs from case tocase. Future research could test whether other strategies may be more effective for up-regulating infatuations levels. 2017-01-12T01:32:48+08:00 Here is the list of articles about love. It is of course important to dissociate between the concept of love regulation and the well-established concept of emotion regulation. Love feelings are sometimes weaker than desired. Institute of Psychology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. We present the first two studies on preconceptions about, strategies for, and the feasibility of love regulation. Counts and percentages of participants reporting the use of certain regulation strategies in the context of heartbreak. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Participants could use the information in the picture for inspiration. In addition, responses on subsets of the 17 questions that measured perceived control over a certain aspect of love were averaged to obtain measures of perceived control over seven different aspects of love (love in general, infatuation, attachment, self, people in general, intensity of love, and object of love). A one-sample t-test showed that this was significantly lower than 5 (= neutral), t(39) = -2.2, p = .032, which suggests that participants perceive love feelings as uncontrollable. So, it is important to investigate both the short- and the long-term effects of love regulation, as those may be dissociated. But, why can some people easily cope with it and come back to normal life but some people cannot? The relationship group felt more positive after passive viewing of partner than neutral pictures, p < .001, whereas the break-up group did not, p = .41. We define love regulation as the use of behavioral or cognitive strategies to change the intensity of current feelings of romantic love. Brain imaging studies of love suggest that 12 different areas of the brain are involved. Romantic love has positive effects on individuals and society as a whole. In the context of long-term relationships, participants often mentioned the importance of communication/honesty and of undertaking (new) activities with their beloved. Even though the LPP was reduced by love up-regulation at the group level, participants who actually showed a more enhanced LPP amplitude as a result of love up-regulation in this time window also showed a greater decrease in negative affect as a result of love up-regulation. One variety of love is familiar in everyday life and qualifies in every reasonable sense as a reactive attitude. In all four time windows, there was a significant main effect of Picture (300–400 ms: F(1,34) = 72.6, p < .001, 400–700 ms: F(1,34) = 101.6, p < .001, 700–1000 ms: F(1,34) = 112.3, p < .001 and 1000–3000 ms: F(1,34) = 51.1, p < .001), indicating that the ERP between 300–3000 ms was more positive in response to the partner than neutral pictures. Two participants specifically stated that love feelings would not decline if the relationship was good and/or that they would end the relationship if love feelings would decline. The LPP amplitude can therefore be used as an objective measure of regulation success [19]. Reappraisal may be more advantageous in the long run though, because decreasing love feelings might help people to move on after a break-up. Positive affect after the two view blocks showed a main effect of Picture, F(1,38) = 27.2, p < .001, which was modulated by a significant Picture x Group interaction, F(1,38) = 21.7, p < .001. self-focused, making them less attractive to others and depriving them of Participants stressed the importance of communication/honesty and undertaking (new) activities with their beloved during long-term relationships. None of the participants reported the use of reappraisal by thinking about negative future scenarios. The EEG was recorded using a 32-channel amplifier and data acquisition software (ActiveTwoSystem, BioSemi). It may be better to use a finer scale in future studies. result, the depressed often sit around passively waiting for someone to Therefore the EEG analyses are based on 18 participants who were in a romantic relationship (19–25 yrs, M = 21.8, 9 men) and 18 participants who had recently experienced a romantic break-up (19–26 yrs, M = 21.7, 8 men). Infatuation was lower after down-regulation than after passive viewing or up-regulation, both ps < .001. People who are currently in a romantic relationship were expected to benefit from love up-regulation, because that would stabilize their relationship. There are multiple emotion regulation strategies, including situation selection, distraction, expression suppression, and cognitive reappraisal. That is, love regulation targets the intensity of love feelings rather than emotions. All participants had an opposite-sex partner. The evidence suggests that love is a universal Strategies such as reappraisal by thinking about negative future scenarios (“it just wasn’t meant to last”), eating/smoking, and expressing emotions (“cry”) were used least often. Copyright: © 2016 Langeslag, van Strien. It feels good but rarely There was a significant main effect of Love type, F(2,76) = 19.8, ε = 1.0, p < .001. The 200 ms pre-stimulus period was used for baseline correction. disappointed because there are many things that do not fit the cultural Finally, a third research line has shown that people think more favorably of their romantic partner than objectively justified [32, 33]. This procedure controls type I error rate by conducting follow-up tests for significant main and interaction effects only. But the In ordinary conversations, we often say things like the following: 1. Google Scholar provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature. Per participant, a maximum of one bad electrode included in the analyses (see below) was corrected using spherical spline topographic interpolation. For more information, please See Fig 5 for the ERP waveforms and Fig 7 for the scalp topographies of the differences between regulation and view conditions. Other strategies such as expressing love feelings to the beloved, trust, spending (quality) time with the beloved, loving unconditionally/making compromises, the two reappraisal strategies, and spending time apart from the beloved were mentioned as well. No, Is the Subject Area "Analysis of variance" applicable to this article? Some strategies seemed specific for changing the intensity of love feelings, rather than for regulating emotions or maintaining relationships. depressed. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. Unlike the self-reported infatuation and attachment levels, the LPP amplitude is not a direct measure of love intensity. 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