Das Verbindende der Kulturen | Book: The Unifying Aspects The 1990s and 2000s were periods of intense civil societal activity in Latin American democracies. of Cultures | Livre: ), correspondence with the decision makers, informal and formal meetings. Through some examples, this paper has attempted tried to assess the importance and the role that civil society plays in cultural policy making in Croatia. It is indeed quite difficult to determine the real strength of the non-governmental cultural sector and its ability to influence decision-making processes, because there is a great disparity between proclaimed and abstract goals of cultural policy and the actual reality of the decision-making process. Still, this report recognizes that the actual influence of non-governmental organizations and individuals depends on numerous factors such as the authority and reputation of the people acting as consultants, the willingness of senior officials in governmental agencies to accept advice, the type of problems under discussion, the possible existence of conflict of interest between organizations and individuals participating in the decision-making on cultural policies, etc. (3) The National Report on Cultural Policy highlights a long tradition of cultural and art amateur associations in Croatia. There are many examples of efficient and cooperative communication between civil society representatives and policy makers that have resulted in improvements in certain cultural policy measures and instruments. These councils are primarily responsible for the establishment of professional standards both for the functioning of institutions and for setting the minimal requirements for employees and professional staff. First, I will define what civil society is since this will help us understand better its role in democratic governance. On one hand, there are numerous amateur arts’ organizations that are promoting local dancing and music, amateur theatre groups, brass orchestras, etc. 53/01. Different authors have quite differing views on the history and tradition of civil society involvement in Croatia, particularly in regards to the period of socialist government. Gramsci therefore viewed civil society as the site for problem-solving. The role of civil society in the policy making process; article published in a special bilingual supplement (Romanian/English) of 2 Magazine in Romania. In 2002, there was a protest of independent artists and a public debate with the Ministry of Culture over the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Social Affairs' presentation of a draft law on retirement benefits and health insurance in the cultural sector. The protesters demanded that artistic creativity obtain a special status within the fiscal system, since "artwork is of general public significance". The new Law on Cultural Councils can also be considered as a significant step forward in decentralizing the decision making process. At present the Councils only exist on the national level, but the law also allows their foundation on county and town levels. Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) also have an important role to play in influencing policies and practices to make them pro-poor. More and more CSOs are recognising the need to understand policy processes better and use evidence to engage with them more effectively. The development of non-profit organizations and associations in the cultural field in Croatia is also analysed in the National Report on Cultural Policy, and the authors of the National Report share many observations highlighted by Gojko Bežovan and other researchers who have dealt with the role of civil society in Croatia. (ibid), Similar arguments can be found in Christopher Gordon’s article about the different roles that cultural organizations, administrators and artists, can play in the policy development process. Still, in contemporary democratic societies, it is hard to imagine any form of decision-making process that does not take into consideration opinions and notions from the civil society, expressed either through individual involvement or on an institutional level. The Croatian Council for Cultural Heritage(8) has a president and eight members. All of this will be established through the comparison between democratic countries, and less democratic or authoritarian regimes. They do not receive funding for their work and moreover they are not distributing grants related to decisions made, which seriously limits the level of their independence(10). Dr. Mathur speaks about the evolving role of citizen groups in public policy making. To illustrate some of these issues this article will analyse three different aspects of civil-society participation in cultural policy making: the general legislative framework for the involvement of the civil society in cultural policy making, attempts to decentralize decision making(4) and advocacy and lobbying. This was well articulated by Charles Landry and François Matarasso in their reflections on the most important strategic dilemmas in cultural policy. She concludes by stating that the participation of different actors in the process of reaching cultural and political decisions may primarily be considered not a value issue but a functional matter related to the efficiency and effectiveness of actual policies. Artists and professionals are continuously lobbying for improvements and adjustments to this law and other laws that effect their everyday lives and activities. (Bosner, 1998: 92) During the socialist regime these associations were used for political socialization, and considerable funds were invested in their activity, which also resulted in massive participation with a rather hight proportion of women and children. Still, some NGOs and alternative art projects have been receiving funding and support from foundations such as the Open Society Institute. According to the finding of this report, non-governmental organizations, cultural institutions and individual artists exert a strong influence on the formulation and implementation of cultural policies (Katunarić, 1998) which includes their autonomous creation of arts’ programmes and also their influence on the decisions taken by governmental bodies and the bodies of local administration and self-government. attainment of good governance and development. politicians, officials (administration) and producers of public goods. ?§(.Ó/îg»ŠÚÀO8{µ±ÒLeR/³æyÈzè=ÏÔXÊ.Q”ô¥ò$P[¬VÌ2å‹qEö}oÙµeZ K±µ“ÄÑá{¯k’'܄Íâ»*ïà©OÿZÕßOtÆ2ØÔéV™~‰õwSm±CÀe›æãæ-B托ü/k…£­J4†«C?EïWá°tWˆØ¸/èº|¯÷éŠÖ•V;—ÈïŸWn¡X¡œ&sò»cò9t[ê¸6¥úȉëà\ð@]qgÚ4¨â´%Ö$à]×]f³­×ÆO+_”§—`/Vš&Pkpe'. Indeed the role of civil society is growing, as exemplified in its role in some important national development policies such as the Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS II: 2006-2009) and the National Budget Processes since 2005. In the programme of the Ministry of Culture for the period 2000-2004, Cultural Councils are described as a "new centre for decision making" which will help in transforming the Ministry of Culture into a coordinator of the "cultural co-deciding process". Antolović, Jadran (ur.) Then, I will outline how the respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms, and political participation aid and strengthen democratic governance. Decisions taken by those authorised to do so are by no doubts legal but are they legitimate? lic policy making in general. of civil society, Sektionsgruppen The Ministry of Culture has also delegated some of its responsibilities for implementing this law to the Association of Self-employed Artists. Abstract. With the adoption of this Law, the civil society representatives gained a new role in cultural policy making in Croatia, however, it is important to stress here that this initiative has not yet resulted in a deep reform of the decision-making process. Rather, Gramsci located civil society in the political superstructure. Even though a certain level of pluralism existed even before the democratic changes of the early 1990s, the real reform of the decision-making process started some ten years ago with the aim of reflecting the demands of the civil society to participate more actively in the decision-making process, and in order to bring the Croatian cultural policy closer to democratic standards. Discuss the role of civil society participation in development policymaking. Still, one of the issues remains the question of the level of involvement and participation as well as the number of active members of different organizations which represents a challenge in determining their legitimacy. The 2016 report by the Statistics South Africa indicated that about 7.03 million South To support this consultation process, several organizations decided to organize civil society pre-consultation activities to listen and gather concerns from smallholder farmers to formulate relevant The Law on the Rights of Self-employed Artists and on the Promotion of Cultural and Artistic Creativity probably represents the highest possible degree of civil society engagement in influencing cultural policy making in Croatia. Despite some delays and obstacles, there is a visible trend of an increase in the of new cultural institutions, the majority of which have been founded as non-profit organisations. Policy analysis recognizes, amongst others, two opposing approaches to decision-making: the rational approach, which assumes that decisions emerge from the decision-maker’s search for the most effective means of achieving policy goals; and the incremental approach which presupposes that a compromise must be achieved between different actors who often have conflicting goals and priorities. Not only directly in the democratic political process, but also by harnessing the support of the public, the audience, and the private sector - which can all have a crucial influence on government attitudes. Even though the role and effectiveness of civil participation in development is a highly contested issue, South Africa has adopted civil society participation in governance as key in promoting transparency, accountability and efficiency in government activities and as such established structures such as NEDLAC to fulfil this. When analysing the role of civil society in the cultural field it is important to emphasise that there are at least four groups of organizations with quite differing goals, objectives and ways of operation. Katunarić, Vjeran; Dragojević, Sanjin; Obuljen, Nina; Schramadei, Pavle (2002) Croatia for the Compendium of cultural policies in Europe: Council of Europe and ERICarts, www.culturalpolicies.net, Katunarić, Vjeran et al (2003) Croatia for the Compendium of cultural policies in Europe: Council of Europe and ERICarts, www.culturalpolicies.net. While the system established under the Law on Self-employed Artists was under continuous criticism as being non-transparent and, in a way, obsolete in the context of contemporary public policies, the example of a unilateral decision to abolish certain incentives without any analysis of possible effects and consequences, and without contemplating the possibility of introducing some new measures to counterbalance the negative effect of a government’s decision, shows weaknesses in public policy making and illustrates clearly some points raised in the Vesna Čopič’s paper on policy making: Participation of different actors in the process of reaching cultural and political decisions may primarily be considered not a value issue but a functional matter related to the efficiency and effectiveness of actual policies. However, today, civil society is “recognised as a diverse and ever-wider ecosystem of individuals, communities and organisations” (WEF, 2013, p. 6). In spite of resistance from many quarters, civil society is actually engaged in policy formulation, through a variety of formal and informal approaches. Author information: (1)a Food Security Programme, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences , University of KwaZulu-Natal , Pietermaritzburg , … Provide examples to support your answer Definitions of civil society Civil society is the spere outside of the family, the nation and the market where people associate to develop frequent interests. Les points communs des cultures. It is a community of conscious citizens, who are intelligent and well aware of the current political, economic, cultural and social situations in the world and their country in particular. of Cultures, Livre: countries has made policy weak - But China, Vietnam, and some countries have shown that the government can play a constructive role in development • 3 important trends in governance and reform: fighting corruption, implementing decentralization, and encouraging broad - based development participation. In October 2014, for the first time in recent history, the government of Myanmar decided to organize a public consultation to inform the development of a national policy. The war has considerably reduced the interest on the part of foreign endowments and foundations, as well as of public bodies to invest in this sector in Croatia. One of civil society’s basic functions is to give a voice to vulnerable populations and communities who are utterly invisible for policy-making purposes. Since the CSI is an action-planning tool for civil society, the final section of Part 3 explains how the CSI project is already generating research-based evidence that might be used by CSOs to Civil society organisations should be politically neutral in their pursuit of developmental goals and ought to practice what they preach by being democratic and accountable themselves. Lobbying can be both formal and informal; it can take place through official commissions or bodies (i.e. For former socialist and communist countries, one of the indicators of their successful transformation into democratic societies is the development of civil society, its role in influencing the decision-making process as well as its capability to participate in the implementation, and effective monitoring of the consequences and results of different public policies. (Gordon, 2001). Juanita Fathul Amani 11/315980/EK/18633. Some of the provisions in these laws have been in existence even before democratic changes in the early 1990s, showing that there was a recognition of the need for a certain degree of pluralism even before a multi-party system was introduced in 1990. Puljiz, Vlado (2000) Civilno društvo u svijetu i u Hrvatskoj, Izazovi civilnog društva u Hrvatskoj, Zagreb. Media and cultural aspects The biggest obstacle in achieving a higher degree of independence is the fact that councils do not have an independent budget. A rather high degree of civil society involvement is envisaged in the execution of the Law on the Rights of Self-employed Artists and on the Promotion of Cultural and Artistic Creativity. Advocacy and lobbying are surely the most visible and common ways a civil society influences the policy-making process in all sectors of public policy. The Association of Self-employed Artists decides which professional organizations will have the right to send representatives to the Commissions for each specific cultural sector. Les points communs des cultures, Internet-Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften. (Dragojević, 1998). (, 2.3. Still, the example of this Law also shows that the introduction of new pieces of legislation does not necessarily bring the desired changes, especially if it does not take into account the realities of public policy-making and everyday life. Still, in the next section of this paper, through the example of some disputes concerning changes in provisions of the laws affecting self-employed artists during the past two years, it will be shown that there are still many weaknesses and that there is a lack of proper communication between decision-makers and representatives of the civil society, even when there is a legislative framework enhancing exchange and communication. Campaigns and public protest The greatest tool in the civic arsenal is persuasion. The development and management of cultural policy is therefore one of the most complex areas of modern government, a kind of a balancing act, not so much between competing priorities as in other areas of policy, but between competing visions of the role of culture in society. (http://www.policiesforculture.org). And unlike other countries in transition, in the first period after the democratic changes and partly because of the war, Croatia did not immediately proceed with stronger support for the development of civil society(2). Hague, Rod ; Harrop, Martin; Breslin, Shaun (2001) Komparativna vladavina i politika : Uvod, Politička misao, Zagreb. The diagnosis of AIDS in 1982 in South Africa was followed by a rapid rise in the number of people living with the virus and dying from AIDS-related illnesses. In practise, ministers of culture, even though they had the right to approve or deny the Commission’s decisions, have not exercised this right and have never overturned the decisions taken by the Commission. The fourth group of civil-society organisations include "all other" groups, from local branches of existing international non-governmental organizations (i.e. Zakošek, Nenad: Civilno društvo, političke stranke i građanske udruge, Neprofitni centar, Zagreb, 5 (2000). Using survey, interview, and document review techniques, this crossnational study explored the potential build networks with like-minded stakeholders, so that civil society can play a stronger role in important policy processes, such as the national budget process. Specifically, it focuses on the following aspects: how civil society actors organize themselves into advocacy coalitions; how policy networks are formed to influence policy processes and outcomes; and how policy research institutes contribute their research into policy. After institutional shock that the EU has experienced in 2001, there have been changes that have to be accepted by the aspirant countries including Croatia. He highlights the role of the so-called "third" and cultural sectors that need to lobby and influence policy at all levels. Subsequently, with the legislative changes that occurred in early 2003, and without any prior consultation with the Association of Self-employed Artists, the government abolished the benefits that were guaranteed by the Law on Self-employed Artists. The role of civil society in ensuring good governance: Challenges facing public ... enhance community cohesion and decision-making. ICOM, ICOMOS, etc.) In fact, the amount earmarked in the budget for the social and health benefits was drastically reduced, so that today those benefits can be labelled as "symbolic" rather than substantive. | Groupes de sections. The Croatian Association of Librarians appoints three members to the Council for Libraries. The Law on Cultural Councils was an attempt to reform cultural policy decision-making in Croatia and bring it closer to the decentralized system which exists in many European countries. In order to overcome the challenges of highly centralized decision-making, and with the aim of including civil society representatives in cultural policy-making, in 2001 the Parliament adopted the Law on Cultural Councils. Civil society plays key roles in pushing for new laws, programmes, policies or strategies on climate change, in holding governments to account on their commitments; in identifying the lack of joined-up government responses to climate change; and in ensuring that national policy making does not forget the poor and vulnerable. archives, theatres, museums, cultural heritage). The National Report on Cultural Policy brings some reflections on the role of civil society in cultural policy-making in Croatia. Still, in order to give the necessary legitimacy to the work of the councils and to establish a true partnership with the civil society representatives, the Law on Cultural Councils will need to be amended or changed. The Commission, which decides on the artists’ requests, consists of one representative of the Ministry of Culture, one representative of the Association of Self-employed Artists and one self-employed artist. This is achieved by influencing public opinion on matters of culture and art through the participation, in an advisory capacity, of individuals and non-governmental organizations in decisions made by governmental bodies and through different forms of lobbying. Bežovan, Gojko: Mogu li istraživanja koristiti razvoju neprofitnih i nevladinih organizacija u Hrvatskoj? With the introduction of this Law, the existing councils for museums, libraries and archives mentioned earlier in this article became Cultural councils for their respective fields. Their responsibilities lie mainly in those segments of policy making, where there is a need for setting up or monitoring professional standards - such as determining programs and requirements for "expert exams", monitoring the professional and artistic standards of public and private cultural and arts organizations and institutions, etc. The Minister of Culture appoints three renowned experts from different professional organizations without obligation to consult any of these professional organizations. Faced with such loud protests from all artist organizations, the Ministry of Culture decided to bargain with the other ministries and found a way to avoid the application of these new measures to artistic creation. cultural councils, statements from assemblies of professional organizations, formal requests from renowned cultural institutions, etc. Through some examples of cultural policy-making in Croatia, this paper will show that there are still great disparities in the level of the involvement of civil society and while some institutional involvement existed well before the early 1990s and the democratic changes, at the same time the informal process of consultation with civil society has not yet been adopted as the most effective way for making important strategic decisions in the cultural policy field. A special law regulates the rules for establishing and operating arts organizations. What is needed is a procedure, whereby no new measures would be adopted without proper debate and consultation with the civil society representatives who would be affected by the particular measures. However, if the civil society representatives feel that their opinions and interests are not taken into account, they can organize rallies and demonstrations and even use their artistic expression to attract attention to the issues they think should be treated differently. This paper was presented in the session "Media and Cultural Aspects of Civil Society" at the International Conference "The Unifying Aspects of Cultures", INST, Vienna, 7-9 November 2003. (8) Law on the protection and the promotion of cultural goods, Official Gazette, 69/99. Gojko Bežovan, one of the leading contemporary theorists of civil society in Croatia claims that all relevant Croatian institutions established at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century were created as a result of civic engagement. The Role of Civil Society in Policy Formulation and Service Provision recognized that real advancement can be made in development efforts. Civil society organizations (CSOs) in Caribbean countries have performed social service delivery and program implementation roles for many years. Based on their artistic merits and achievements, according to this Law, self-employed artists have the right to health, pension and disability insurance. (ibid), Moreover, she insists that the process of decision-making should be synergetic and not entropic, and that ignoring one of the partners in the decision-making process may lead to mutual obstructions and a non-productive situation that then turns power into impotence. Civil society's ability to influence government policy will come under discussion later this month in the Scottish city of Glasgow at the CIVICUS World Assembly (Jun. • Civil society and NGOs also have of civil society, Book: The Unifying Aspects Katunarić, Vjeran; Cvjetičanin, Biserka (1998) Kulturna politika Republike Hrvatske: Nacionalni izvještaj, Ministarstvo kulture Republike Hrvatske, Zagreb. The second group consists of arts’ organizations established by professional artists. Cultural councils, even if they have the authority to make decisions, do not have the necessary capacity or resources for their work. (Hague, Harrop, Breslin, 1998) Depending on the approach adopted, the role of civil society representatives differs. (Bežovan, 1998) Still, regardless of this fact, he thinks that the civil society in Croatia does not have a strong tradition. 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